DIBELS Letter Naming Fluency

LNF Timeline

Description of the LNF Measure

DIBELS Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) is a standardized, individually administered test that provides a measure of risk. LNF is based on research by Marston and Magnusson (1988). Students are presented with a page of upper- and lower-case letters arranged in a random order and are asked to name as many letters as they can. If they do not know a letter, the examiner provides the name of the letter. The student is allowed 1 minute to produce as many letter names as he/she can, and the score is the number of letters named correctly in 1 minute. Students are considered at risk for difficulty achieving early literacy benchmark goals if they perform in the lowest 20% of students in their district. Students are considered at some risk if they perform between the 20th and 40th percentile using local norms. Students are considered at low risk if they perform above the 40th percentile using local norms.

DIBELS 6th Edition Technical Adequacy of the LNF Measure

The 1-month, alternate-form reliability of LNF is .88 in kindergarten (Good, Kaminski, Shinn, Bratten, Shinn, Laimon, Smith, & Flindt, 2004). The median criterion-related validity of LNF with the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised Readiness Cluster standard score is .70 in kindergarten (Good et al., 2004). The predictive validity of kindergarten LNF with first-grade Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised Reading Cluster standard score is .65, and .71 with first-grade CBM reading (Good et al., 2004).

How does LNF link to the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading?

Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) is included for students in grades K and 1 as an indicator of risk. Unlike the other DIBELS measures, LNF does not measure a Basic Early Literacy Skill. Although letter names comprise a set of teachable skills, teaching letter names does not lead directly to improvements in student reading outcomes in the ways characterized by the foundational skills of early literacy (Adams, 1990). However, because the measure is highly predictive of later reading success, it is included as an indicator for students who may require additional instructional support on the Basic Early Literacy Skills.

LNF Sample Clip