DIBELS Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)

DIBELS Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) is a standardized, individually administered test that provides a measure of risk. LNF is based on research by Marston and Magnusson (1988). Students are presented with a page of upper- and lower-case letters arranged in a random order and are asked to name as many letters as they can. If they do not know a letter, the examiner provides the name of the letter. The student is allowed 1 minute to produce as many letter names as he/she can, and the score is the number of letters named correctly in 1 minute.

LNF administered is administered in Kindergarten and 1st grade. See the DIBELS administration timeline for complete information.

For technical information about the LNF measure see our technical technical reports and the National Center for Intensive Intervention.

How does LNF link to the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading?

Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) is included for students in grades K and 1 as an indicator of risk. Unlike the other DIBELS measures, LNF does not measure a Basic Early Literacy Skill. Although letter names comprise a set of teachable skills, teaching letter names does not lead directly to improvements in student reading outcomes in the ways characterized by the foundational skills of early literacy (Adams, 1990). However, because the measure is highly predictive of later reading success, it is included as an indicator for students who may require additional instructional support on the Basic Early Literacy Skills.