DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency and Retell Fluency (ORF)

DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) is a standardized, individually administered test of accuracy and fluency with connected text. The DIBELS ORF passages and procedures are based on Stan Deno and colleagues' program of research and development of Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading at the University of Minnesota. These procedures are described in Shinn (1989). A version of CBM reading also has been published as The Test of Reading Fluency (TORF) (Children's Educational Services, 1987). ORF is a standardized set of passages and administration procedures designed to (a) identify children who may need additional instructional support, and (b) monitor progress toward instructional goals. The passages are calibrated for each grade level. Student performance is measured by having students read a passage aloud for one minute. Words omitted, substituted, and hesitations of more than three seconds are scored as errors. Words self-corrected within three seconds are scored as accurate. The number of correct words per minute is the oral reading fluency score. DIBELS ORF includes both benchmark passages to be used as screening assessments across the school year, as well as 20 alternate forms per grade for monitoring progress.

ORF is administered in 1st Grade through 8th Grade. See the DIBELS administration timeline for complete information.

For technical information about the ORF measure see our technical technical reports and the National Center for Intensive Intervention.

How do ORF and RTF link to the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading?

DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) is a measure that assesses Accuracy and Fluency with Text, the ability to effortlessly translate letters to sounds and sounds to words. The fluent reader is one whose decoding processes are automatic, requiring no conscious attention. Such capacity then enables readers to allocate their attention to the comprehension and meaning of the text.

To learn more about accuracy and fluency with text, visit the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading: Reading Fluency pages.