IDEL Fluidez en la Lectura Oral and Fluidez en el Relato Oral

Description of the FLO and FRO Measures

Fluidez en la Lectura Oral (FLO) is a standardized, individually administered test of accuracy and fluency with connected text. The FLO passages and procedures follow the program of research and development of Curriculum-Based Measurement of reading by Stan Deno and colleagues at the University of Minnesota and using the procedures described in Shinn (1989). Currently, the research on the role of fluency and accuracy on reading comprehension in Spanish is scarce (De la Colina, Hasbrouck, Parker & Lara-Alecio, 2001; Abadzi, Crouch, Echegaray, Pasco, et al, 2005). However because Spanish, like English, is an alphabetic language, we believe that oral reading fluency is an important skill to acquire. FLO consists of a standardized set of passages and administration procedures designed to (a) identify children who may need additional instructional support, and (b) monitor progress toward instructional goals. The passages are calibrated for the goal level of reading for each grade level. Student performance is measured by having students read a passage aloud for one minute. Words omitted, substituted, and hesitations of more than three seconds are scored as errors. Words self-corrected within three seconds are scored as accurate. The number of correct words per minute from the passage is the oral reading fluency rate.

The benchmark goals for FLO are 40 in spring of first grade, 65 in spring of second grade, and 85 in the spring of third grade. Students may need intensive instructional support if they score below 25 in spring of first grade, below 50 in spring of second grade, and below 65 in spring of third grade.

Fluidez en el Relato Oral (FRO) is intended to provide a comprehension check for the FLO assessment. In general, oral reading fluency provides one of the best measures of reading competence, including comprehension, for children in first through third grades. The purpose of the FRO measure is to (a) prevent inadvertently learning or practicing a misrule, (b) identify children whose comprehension is not consistent with their fluency, (c) provide an explicit linkage to the core components in the NRP report, and (d) increase the face validity of FLO.

  1. The misrule that we want to prevent is that speed-reading without attending to meaning is either desirable or the intent of the oral reading fluency measure. With a prompted retell, children will be less likely to conclude that reading as fast as they can is the desired behavior, and teachers will be less likely to imply that simply reading fast is desired.
  2. Teachers frequently are concerned about children who read fluently and do not comprehend. This pattern is infrequent but may apply to some children. FRO may identify those children without increasing unduly the amount of time spent in assessment.
  3. FRO is included to provide a brief measure that corresponds directly to the comprehension core component. The current oral reading fluency measure corresponds about as well as anything to reading comprehension in English.
  4. A primary concern teachers have about oral reading fluency is the face validity of the measure. Incorporation of an explicit comprehension check may help teachers feel increasingly comfortable with oral reading fluency.

Guidelines for Interpreting Fluidez en el Relato Oral. Preliminary evidence, in English, indicates that the FRO measure correlates with measures of oral reading fluency about .59. It appears children's retell scores may be typically about 50% of their oral reading fluency score, and that it is unusual for children reading more than 40 words per minute to have a retell score 25% or less than their oral reading fluency score. So, a rough rule of thumb may be that, for children whose retell is about 50% of their oral reading fluency score, their oral reading fluency score provides a good overall indication of their reading proficiency, including comprehension. But, for children who are reading over 40 words per minute and whose retell score is 25% or less of their oral reading fluency, their oral reading fluency score alone may not be providing a good indication of their overall reading proficiency. For example, a child reading 60 words correct in one minute would be expected to use about 30 words in their retell of the passage. If their retell is about 30, then their oral reading fluency of 60 is providing a good indication of their reading skills. If their retell is 15 or less, then there may be a comprehension concern that is not represented by their fluency.

Technical Adequacy of the FLO and FRO Measures

In English, a series of studies have confirmed the technical adequacy of CBM Reading procedures in general. Test-retest reliabilities for elementary students ranged from .92 to .97; alternate-form reliability of different reading passages drawn from the same level ranged from .89 to .94 (Tindal, Marston, & Deno, 1983). Criterion-related validity studied in eight separate studies in the 1980s reported coefficients ranging from .52 - .91 (Good & Jefferson, 1998). In Spanish, three week alternate-form reliability of passages in the middle of first, second, and third grade range from .87-.94 (Baker, Good, Peyton, & Watson, unpublished data.) Criterion-related validity of FLO with the Woodcock-Muñoz Bateria-R Combined Scores of Amplia Lectura is .79 (Watson, 2004). The criterion-related validity of FLO with the Aprenda 3 Prueba de Logros is .64 at the end of second grade (Baker, 2007).

More research needs to be conducted to establish the reliability and validity of the FRO measure. FRO can be used, however, to assess students' ability to retell the passage they just read. The qualitative scoring of FRO provides additional information to teachers about the quality of the student's retell. The "Idea principal" is defined as the main idea of the section the student read aloud. For example, if the student read only the first paragraph of a passage in one minute, then consider the main idea of the first paragraph to score the quality of the retell.

How do the FLO and FRO measures link to DIBELS?

Fluidez en la Lectura Oral (FLO) is similar to the DIBES Oral Reading Fluency measure. Fluidez en el Relato Oral (FRO) is similar to the DIBELS Retell Fluency measure.

How do the FLO and FRO measures link to the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading?

Like DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measure, FLO is a measure that assesses fluency with text, the ability to effortlessly translate letters-to-sounds-to-words. The fluent reader is one whose decoding processes are automatic, requiring no conscious attention. Such capacity then enables readers to allocate their attention to the comprehension and meaning of the text.

To learn more about fluency with text in English, visit the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading: Fluency pages.

Like the DIBELS Retell Fluency (RTF) measure, FRO is a measure that assesses comprehension, the ability to extract meaning from text.

To learn more about comprehension, visit the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading pages.

What are the benchmark goals for the FLO and FRO measures?

View the benchmark goals for all the IDEL measures.