IDEL Fluidez en la Segmentación de Fonemas
Description of the FSF Measure
Fluidez en la Segmentación de Fonemas (FSF) is a standardized, individually administered test of phonological awareness. The FSF measure assesses a student's ability to segment one, two, or three syllable words into their individual phonemes fluently. The FSF measure has been found to be a good predictor of later reading achievement (Nelson, 2003). The FSF task is administered by the examiner orally presenting words of one to three syllables. It requires the student to produce verbally the individual phonemes for each word. For example, the examiner says, "gato," and the student says, "/g/ /a/ /t/ /o/" to receive 4 possible points for the word, one for each phoneme. Because the syllable is a salient sound part in Spanish words FSF also includes a column (Síl) to record the number of syllables students say in a minute. After the student responds, the examiner presents the next word, and the number of correct phonemes produced in one minute determines the final score. The FSF measure takes about 2 minutes to administer and has over 20 alternate forms for monitoring progress. The benchmark goal is 50 correct phonemes per minute in the spring of kindergarten and fall of first grade. Students scoring below 35 in the spring of kindergarten and fall of first grade may need intensive instructional support to achieve benchmark goals.
Technical Adequacy of the FSF Measure
The three-week alternate-form reliability for FSF is .87 in the middle of first grade (Baker, Good, Peyton, & Watson, unpublished data). Further research on the decision- utility of syllabic segmentation in the early stages of beginning reading needs to be conducted. Segmenting a word in syllables is considered an initial step toward the development of phonemic awareness. Segmenting words at the phoneme level is associated with a higher level of phonemic awareness (Jiménez & Ortiz, 2000). Thus, students who need more intensive support in becoming successful readers may need to practice segmenting words at the phoneme level (Jiménez & Ortiz, 2000; Signorini, 1997; Vaughn, Mathes, Linan-Thompson, & Francis, 2005).
How does the FSF measure link to DIBELS?
How does the FSF measure link to the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading?
Like the DIBELS PSF measure, FSF is a measure that assesses phonemic awareness skills. Phonemic Awareness (PA) is:
- the ability to hear and manipulate the sounds in spoken words and the understanding that spoken words and syllables are made up of sequences of speech sounds (Yopp, 1992).
- essential to learning to read in an alphabetic writing system, because letters represent sounds or phonemes. Without phonemic awareness, phonics makes little sense.
- fundamental to mapping speech to print. If a child cannot hear that "mamá" and "mano" begin with the same sound or cannot blend the sounds /ssssaaaaaalllll/ into the word "sal", he or she may have great difficulty connecting sounds with their written symbols or blending sounds to make a word.
- a good indicator of children who may experience reading difficulties later.
Research in Spanish phonological awareness suggests that there is a moderately strong relation between phonological awareness and beginning decoding skills - especially for at risk readers (Carrillo, 1994; Durgunoglu, Nagy, & Hacin-Bhatt, 1993). Moreover, this skill can transfer from one language to another (Carrillo, 1994; Cisero & Royer, 1995; Denton, Hasbrouck, Weaver, & Riccio, 2000; Durgunoglu, et al., 1993; Ehri, 2005; Yopp and Stapleton, 2008). Cisero and Royer (1995) found that phonological awareness skills in Spanish were related to English phonological awareness skills (rhyme detection, initial and final phoneme detection). Durgunoglu et al. (1993) found that children with phonological awareness and word recognition skills in Spanish will do better in English word recognition and oral proficiency than children who can only read some Spanish words but have weak phonological awareness skills in Spanish.
What are the benchmark goals for the FSF measure?
View the benchmark goals for all the IDEL measures.