Schoolwide Model: Goals
In the Schoolwide Model, "Goals" refers to a set of strategic, research-based, and measurable goals to guide instruction, assessment, and learning:
- Reading and literacy goals aligned with "Big Ideas" in beginning reading.
- Curriculum-based or standards-based 180-day pacing maps.
- Clear goals and expectations for each grade.
Reading and literacy goals aligned with the "Big Ideas" in beginning reading.
- The scientific knowledge base has converged on five "big ideas" in beginning reading (National Reading Panel, 2000). These big ideas highlight what is most important in beginning reading instruction.
- To effectively guide instruction, assessment, and learning, reading goals need to be aligned with these five big ideas.
- Phonemic Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sound in words.
- Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words.
- Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in isolation (orthographic coding) and connected text.
- Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning.
- Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning.
Curriculum-based or standards-based 180-day pacing maps.
- To be most useful, goals should provide specific, user-friendly information about what to teach, when to teach it, and what students should know at every grade level, month by month.
- Goals should provide a detailed map to direct instruction and assessment.
This curriculum map below is shown as an example. Access the complete set of curriculum maps for grades K - 3.
This example map is for the teaching the Alphabetic Principle in second grade. Curriculum maps are organized by grade and big idea.
The numbers in the top row of the curriculum map correspond to the months of the school year. For example, if your school year begins in September, then September would be month 1 on the map. If your school year begins in August, then August would be month one. The shaded boxes marked with "X" represent the months in which a particular skill should be taught.
Within the Alphabetic Principle there are multiple objectives children should accomplish. It is important to note that these are time-sensitive maps in the sense that the skills children should master are linked to particular points in time during the academic year. These skills are cumulative and developmental. One of the features that can help teachers prioritize skills are items with an asterisk that are considered more important than others. This doesn't mean that the other skill areas don't need to be taught, but the asterisk items should be given priority.
Clear goals and expectations for each grade.
- To be most useful, goals should be specific, measurable, and linked to critical beginning reading skills at predetermined points in time.
- Benchmark goals that are predictive of later reading achievement allow teachers to determine which students are at risk for experiencing reading difficulties.
- The second grade benchmark goals for DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (below) are shown as an example of benchmark goals.
Second Grade: DIBELS 6th Edition Benchmark Assessment
|DIBELS Measure||Beginning of Year||Middle of Year||End of Year|
|ORF||0 - 27
41 and above
|0 - 54
55 - 75
76 and above
|0 - 74
75 - 95
96 and above
Access the complete DIBELS benchmark goals for grades K - 6.